Adding Data Sources


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This document is outdated. Autoplot is generally repacked into a two jar files, one for Autoplot and its libraries and one for the third party jar files. Otherwise the document is still useful.


  1. Autoplot Internals Overview
    1. QDataSet
    2. Metadata Handling
    3. DataSource
    4. Existing Data Sources
    5. Autoplot
  2. Overview of Tutorial
  3. Create a Dummy DataSource and Register the DataSource Type
    1. Set up project
    2. Define two classes
      1. WavDataSource
      2. WavDataSourceFactory
    3. Register with Autoplot
    4. Test
  4. Implement the DataSource
    1. wav file format
    2. Get a local copy of the file, create QDataSet
    3. Test
  5. Adding Metadata to the DataSource
    1. Return arbitrary Metadata that is presented in the metadata tab
    2. Assigning time tags with the QDataSet model
  6. Adding parameters to the URI
    1. Getting the Parameters
    2. Completion
  7. What's Next
  8. Creating a Graphical URI Editor
    1. Summary of Steps
    2. Create a WavDataSourceEditorPanel
    3. The Extensions File
    4. Implementing the Editor
      1. reject
      2. prepare
      3. getPanel
      4. setURI
      5. getURI

1. Autoplot Internals Overview

The core of Autoplot is four jars

  • QDataSet, the data model
  • DataSource, gets data into the data model
  • DataSourcePack, various implementations of DataSource, including AsciiTable and das2Stream.
  • Autoplot, the application based on all of the jars.

Other jar files are used to read data from different file formats (e.g., CDF, and netCDF) or are used for UI functions (e.g., jars for writing PNG files). To see the list of jar files used, save as a text file and read its contents.

1.1. QDataSet

  • QDataSet is the data model, which is a Java interface
  • QDataSet implementations, e.g. DDataSet wraps a double array
  • QDataSet is the data model used in das2 since the Autoplot2010 branch.
  • Operators
    • slice
    • data reduction
    • aggregation
  • Utilities
    • ascii table parser
    • data set builder

1.2. Metadata Handling

Metadata is conveyed using a tree built from Map objects. The root "node" is Map<String,Object>, and the objects can be another Map<String,Object> branch or immutable objects that are leaves.

1.3. DataSource

  • DataSources know how to model other data models as QDataSets.
  • DataSources also provide a metadata of Map<String,Object> with name=value leaves.
  • DataSourceFactorys
    • translate from URI to DataSource
    • provide completion model to generate valid URIs
    • have a reject method that rejects incorrect or incomplete URIs
  • Data sources often have GUIs that assist in creating valid URIs.
  • DataSourceRegistry
    • table of lookups: extension to DataSourceFactory and mime-type to DataSourceFactory
  • DataSetURI
    • uses DataSourceRegistry, DataSourceFactory to create DataSource from URI
    • provides filesystem completion or dataSource completion by delegation.
  • MetaDataModel
    • translates various metadata models into canonical QDataSet metadata model.
    • for example, ISTPMetaDataModel allows cdfs to be interpreted via local file access or via openDAP.
  • org.autoplot.aggregator
    • AggregatingDataSource aggregates another DataSource using das2 FileStorageModel
    • AggregatingDataSourceFactory uses a delegate DataSourceFactory and a representative file.
  • DataSetSelector GUI component that provides user interface to completion model. This is the address bar in the Autoplot GUI.
  • DataSource.getCapability adds various capabilities, such as TimeSeriesBrowse. See developer.capabilities

1.4. Existing Data Sources

  • various DataSources know how to model other data models as QDataSets, for example:
    • ASCII--uses internal QDataSet ASCII table parser to read in table
    • Binary--binary files.
    • Excel--uses external Jakarta Poi library to read data from Excel spreadsheets.
    • das2Stream--das2 streams allow streaming of data and metadata. Bob Weigel's TSDS server can send these streams.
    • netCDF--adapts NetCDF data model.
    • OpenDAP--open DAP is a web API for accessing remote data.
    • SPASE--allows SPASE record to wrap another data source, and provide metadata for it.
    • Fits--Fits files used in astronomy
    • Wav--.wav files. This is the result of this tutorial.
    • CDF--ISTP CDF files
    • CEF--Cluster Exchange Format files
    • Jython--Jython code is used to compose datasets.

1.5. Autoplot

  • ApplicationModel is the legacy internal Model and Controller (as in MVC) of the Autoplot application. (The state and things the application can do.)
  • the package "dom" implements the "DOM" tree containing the application state.
  • AutoplotUI is a GUI View of the model.
  • the package "state" has classes for undo/redo support, and saving application state into .vap files.
  • the package "transferrable" supports copy image to OS clipboard.
  • the package "server" is the back-end server that provides access to console to support scripting.
  • the package "scriptconsole" is a GUI for browsing and executing jython code. It also contains LogConsole, which provides access to log messages.

2. Overview of Tutorial

In this tutorial, we will add the ability to plot .wav files to Autoplot. First, we will create a dummy data source and register it with autoplot. Then we will actually read the data and return the waveform. Last we'll add an additional capability and see how completions are added.

So we can avoid the tedium of jar files and compiling java code, this tutorial assumes you are using Netbeans 6.5+ and can build Autoplot as described in Autoplot_from_source and Autoplot_from_source#Building_in_Netbeans.

3. Create a Dummy DataSource and Register the DataSource Type

Before writing the code to deal with the wav format, we'll create the data source with a dummy implementation and confirm that it gets properly registered with Autoplot.

3.1. Set up project

  • Create a new project "WavDataSource"
  • Open WavDataSource project properties and click on "Libraries"
    • Click "Add Project" and add QDataSet
    • Click "Add Project" and add DataSource
    • Click "Add Project" and add DasCore

3.2. Define two classes

Create a new package "org.autoplot.wav". All class references are within this package.

3.2.1. WavDataSource

  • Create a new class WavDataSource that extends AbstractDataSource. (An abstract class is a class that is mostly implemented, and subclasses finish the work.)
  • Define a constructor that accepts URI and calls super constructor.
  • Provide an implementation of the abstract method getDataSet. This is a dummy method for testing; the real implementation is presented in the next section.
public QDataSet getDataSet(ProgressMonitor mon) throws Exception {
    return DataSetUtil.replicateDataSet( 30, 1.0 );

3.2.2. WavDataSourceFactory

  • Create a new class WavDataSourceFactory that extends AbstractDataSourceFactory.
  • Implement getDataSource(URL url) to simply return new WavDataSource(url)

3.3. Register with Autoplot

This is the tricky part, since no java type checking is done and it's easy to make mistakes.

  • Make a text file META-INF/org.autoplot.datasource.DataSourceFactory.extensions that would contain the name of your factory class that has a no-argument constructor, followed by the extensions (e.g. wav).
  • Alternatively, the plugin can be registered by mime type using the text file META-INF/org.autoplot.datasource.DataSourceFactory.mimeTypes. Note: mime types are only used with http urls. DEPRECATED: don't use this, it will probably go away.

The META-INF directory should appear in the project's src folder.

For Autoplot to locate and load your new data source, WavDataSource.jar must appear in the classpath. When running from NetBeans, the easiest way to do this is to add the WavDataSource project as a library in the Autoplot project properties.

3.4. Test

  • run autoplot
  • for URL, enter "file:///foo.wav"
  • 30 1.0's should be plotted.

4. Implement the DataSource

We will do all the work in the getDataSet method of WavDataSource.

4.1. wav file format

A wav file is a big binary array, with encoding information in the first 64 bytes of the file. We will use java's AudioSystem class to parse the header. For this example, we will only support mono (one channel) formats. Also, we will not implement the QDataSet interface for now, and we will use java.nio which handles endian encodings.

4.2. Get a local copy of the file, create QDataSet

public QDataSet getDataSet(DasProgressMonitor mon) throws Exception {
    File wavFile = DataSetURI.getFile(this.uri, mon);
    AudioFileFormat fileFormat = AudioSystem.getAudioFileFormat(wavFile);
    AudioFormat audioFormat = fileFormat.getFormat();
    FileInputStream fin = new FileInputStream(wavFile);
    ByteBuffer byteBuffer = fin.getChannel().map(MapMode.READ_ONLY, 64, wavFile.length() - 64);
    int frameSize = audioFormat.getFrameSize();
    int frameCount = (byteBuffer.limit() - byteBuffer.position()) / frameSize;
    int bits = audioFormat.getSampleSizeInBits();
    boolean unsigned= audioFormat.getEncoding().equals(AudioFormat.Encoding.PCM_UNSIGNED );
    if ( unsigned ) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unsupported wave file format: " + audioFormat + ", need signed.");
    if (audioFormat.getChannels() > 1) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unsupported wave file format: " + audioFormat + ", need mono.");
    if (bits != 16 && bits != 8) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unsupported wave file format: " + audioFormat + ", need 8 or 16 bits.");
    QDataSet result;
    if (bits == 16) {
        if (audioFormat.isBigEndian()) {
        } else {
        ShortBuffer shortBuffer = byteBuffer.asShortBuffer();
        short[] buf = new short[frameCount];
        result = SDataSet.wrap(buf);
    } else {
        byte[] buf = new byte[frameCount];
        result = BDataSet.wrap(buf);
    return result;

If you are interested in the QDataSet data model, you'll want to look at the QDataSet.

4.3. Test

Run Autoplot again and this time point it to a .wav file. Windows "Sound Recorder" can be used to produce the file, or use this one: [1]

5. Adding Metadata to the DataSource

5.1. Return arbitrary Metadata that is presented in the metadata tab

Override method "getMetaData(org.das2.util.monitor.ProgressMonitor)":

public Map<String,Object> getMetadata(ProgressMonitor mon) throws Exception {
    File wavFile = DataSetURI.getFile(this.uri, mon);
    AudioFileFormat fileFormat = AudioSystem.getAudioFileFormat(wavFile);
    AudioFormat audioFormat= fileFormat.getFormat();
    Map<String,Object> properties= new HashMap<String,Object>(  );
    properties.put( "encoding", audioFormat.getEncoding() );
    properties.put( "channels", audioFormat.getChannels() );
    properties.put( "frame rate", audioFormat.getFrameRate() );
    properties.put( "bits", audioFormat.getSampleSizeInBits() );
    return properties;

5.2. Assigning time tags with the QDataSet model

To specify physical time tags with the QDataSet model, we can attach time tags to the created data set. To the getDataSet method, we add:

MutablePropertyDataSet timeTags= DataSetUtil.tagGenDataSet( frameCount, 0., 1./audioFormat.getSampleRate() );
timeTags.putProperty( QDataSet.UNITS, Units.seconds );
result.putProperty( QDataSet.DEPEND_0, timeTags );

In the QDataSet model, the property DEPEND_0 contains a dataset with the values of the independent variable. See for a list of units.

6. Adding parameters to the URI

Let's add the ability to look at just a part of the .wav file. We'll define two keywords, offset and length to our dataset URIs. For example, file:///data/mywav.wav?offset=1.0&length=0.2 means start at 1.0 seconds into the wav file, and clip after 0.2 seconds.

6.1. Getting the Parameters

Since we are extending AbstractDataSource, the parameters are available in the Map<String,String> params. It should be clear to the reader how this would be implemented, and here is the source:

6.2. Completion

The DataSourceFactory can provide a set of completions so that users can more easily use the data source. In our class WavDataSourceFactory, we now override getCompletions:

public List<CompletionContext> getCompletions(CompletionContext cc) {
    List<CompletionContext> result= new ArrayList<CompletionContext>();
    if ( cc.context.equals(CompletionContext.CONTEXT_PARAMETER_NAME ) ) {
        result.add( new CompletionContext( CompletionContext.CONTEXT_PARAMETER_NAME, "offset" ) );
        result.add( new CompletionContext( CompletionContext.CONTEXT_PARAMETER_NAME, "length" ) );
    } else if ( cc.context.equals(CompletionContext.CONTEXT_PARAMETER_VALUE ) ) {
        String paramName= CompletionContext.get( CompletionContext.CONTEXT_PARAMETER_NAME, cc );
        result.add( new CompletionContext( CompletionContext.CONTEXT_PARAMETER_VALUE, "<double>" ) );
    return result;

The completions identified here are used to automatically generate a GUI to create URIs.

7. What's Next

This tutorial uses existing implementations of QDataSet that force the data to be read into memory. This limits the size of the wav file that can be browsed to about 30 seconds at 8000Hz. One could easily create a QDataSet implementation that wraps the memory-mapped ByteBuffer, so data is only swapped into physical memory as it is accessed. (See java.nio for information about ByteBuffer.)

Note that this is implemented in Autoplot source.

You can also:

  • define the reject method in WavDataSourceFactory to reject when the parameters aren't properly specified.
  • define a graphical editor which aids URI construction instead if completions. (Note an automatic editor based on completions is coming.)
    • also see the tutorial extension below

8. Creating a Graphical URI Editor

After producing functional WavDataSource and WavDataSourceFactory classes, an Editor Panel can be created as well. In this example we use the Netbeans (Java IDE) GUI builder, but it can be developed in Eclipse or other environments.

8.1. Summary of Steps

  • First, create a class called "WavDataSourceEditorPanel" in the same package as the first two classes.
  • Before implementing anything, we must create an extensions file so that our Panel will be used in Autoplot.
  • Finally, we will implement the necessary methods to produce a working editor panel.

8.2. Create a WavDataSourceEditorPanel

Create the class in the same package as before.

  • If you are using NetBeans, you may wish to use the GUI builder in constructing this class
  • WavDataSourceEditorPanel should implement the DataSourceEditorPanel interface, and extend the JPanel class

8.3. The Extensions File

Next, we must create another file in the package's "META-INF" folder. Open a new text file, and save it as "org.autoplot.datasource.DataSourceEditorPanel.extensions". Then simply add the text: "org.autoplot.wav.WavDataSourceEditorPanel wav". This will allow Autoplot to find the class we are about to write and display it for editing Wav files.

8.4. Implementing the Editor

First we must design a simple GUI to handle parameters for the Wav file. Since we are only dealing with two parameters: offset and length, we only need two labels and two text fields in our GUI.

After this, we must implement five methods from the DataSourceEditorPanel interface: getPanel, setURI, getURI, reject, and prepare.

8.4.1. reject

This method determines if the given URI is acceptable for editing. Below is a simple implementation for the reject method. It simply detects if the given URI is a directory. This code can easily be modified to accept a URI that is incomplete and provide a default file path.

public boolean reject(String uri) throws Exception {
    URISplit split = URISplit.parse(uri);
    FileSystem fs = FileSystem.create(DataSetURI.getWebURL(DataSetURI.toUri(split.path)).toURI());
    if (fs.isDirectory(split.file.substring(split.path.length()))) {
        return true;
return false;

Note data sources that do not reject an empty URI like "vap+<dsid>:" are called "discoverable" and are added to the Autoplot menu at File->Add Plot From-><dsid>.

8.4.2. prepare

The prepare method for an editor panel can be designed to do a number of things to get the Editor ready. Since we only have a simple GUI, not much is needed in this case. This method returns true under normal condition. Note this method is provided a progress monitor, so long operations, such as downloading a file, should be done here.

public boolean prepare(String uri, Window parent, ProgressMonitor mon) throws Exception {
    URISplit split = URISplit.parse(uri);
    File f = DataSetURI.getFile(new URL(split.file), mon);
    return true;

8.4.3. getPanel

Simply implement this method with "return this;"

8.4.4. setURI

This method is used to initialize the GUI. Since our GUI has two text fields with which to modify the URI, we will want these to display the current parameter values upon opening the URI editor.

public void setURI(String uri) {
    this.sURI = uri;//store the value of the String input
    URISplit split = URISplit.parse(sURI);
    File f = DataSetURI.getFile(new URL(split.file), new NullProgressMonitor());
    Map<String, String> params = URISplit.parseParams(split.params);
    String oF = params.get("offset");
    String lF = params.get("length");

Where jTextField1 and jTextField2 are the two jTextFields that display the parameter values.

8.4.5. getURI

The method "getURI" returns the URI for the current GUI settings. Note Autoplot assumes this is a working URI, and will exhibit strange behavior if it is not.

public String getURI() {
    URISplit split = URISplit.parse(sURI);
    Map<String, String> params = new LinkedHashMap();
    String offset = jTextField1.getText().trim();
    String length = jTextField2.getText().trim();
    if(!offset.equals("")) params.put("offset", offset);
    if(!length.equals("")) params.put("length", length);
    split.params = URISplit.formatParams(params);
    return URISplit.format(split);

There are many ways to extend the WavDataSourceEditorPanel to include additional functionality, including:

  • More parameters can be included, such as 'channel'
  • A more complex GUI may be implemented using something other than the jTextFields used here
  • The methods can be modified to accept only a directory URI instead of a full filepath

Preview of a WavDataSourceEditorPanel

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